Economic Order Quantity: What Does It Mean and Who Is It Important For?

The EOQ tells you how much of a product you should order, so you can easily use that number when manually creating purchase orders in your POS system, if it has that functionality. But there are also ways to use the EOQ with reorder points to streamline your inventory management workflow. Whether you sell five or 50,000 products, QuickBooks Enterprise puts the tools you need for efficient, profitable inventory management right at your fingertips. Malakooti (2013)[10] has introduced the multi-criteria EOQ models where the criteria could be minimizing the total cost, Order quantity (inventory), and Shortages. Perera et al. (2017)[4] establish this optimality and fully characterize the (s,S) optimality within the EOQ setting under general cost structures.

What is economic order quantity (EOQ)

It can uncover products that fit into the JIT model and how much inventory to keep. As repeat purchases are going to be part of the business when using EOQ, it can enhance supplier relationships and ensure a stockout situation never occurs. For example, setting reorder levels ensure you can stock your inventory correctly without delay. Nothing puts off customers more than finding out the product they need is out of stock. Businesses can ensure they maintain correct stock levels at all times so they can keep their customers happy. Most business owners tend to underestimate their demand or inflate their setup costs when calculating their EOQ.

What is your current financial priority?

ShipBob’s best-in-class fulfillment technology offers built-in inventory management software, which helps you improve your inventory control. You can check inventory counts in real-time, set automatic reorder points, and better forecast demand. ShipBob helps you reduce your inventory costs by allowing you to only pay for the space you need in our warehouses. You can quickly view storage costs over time through your ShipBob dashboard for full transparency.

  1. In situations where the demand is not consistent, the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) will provide a misleading figure.
  2. The EOQ assumes demand is constant and inventory is reduced at a fixed rate until it reaches zero.
  3. When a business orders more inventory than it has demand for, it leads to high ordering costs as the company spends more of its cash flow on inventory.
  4. By arriving at an optimal number of products to order, the company can minimize the costs for the buying, delivery, and storage of items.
  5. You might want to invest in setup funds as they might help you buy stock for a cheaper price in a turbulent market that is likely to shift.
  6. When reordering products, many businesses place orders based on what they need at the exact moment.

Transaction cost (placing order)

As inventory costs are optimized, you may consider changes in the product’s price policy. EOQ takes into account the timing of reordering, the cost incurred to place an order, and the cost to store merchandise. If a company is constantly placing small orders to maintain a specific inventory level, the ordering costs are higher, and there is a need for additional storage space. In addition, you can always see what you have in stock and you can calculate your material requirements for upcoming orders. Capital costs + inventory service costs + inventory risk costs + inventory storage costs, divided by average inventory value. It’s an important figure for any business trying to minimise overspending while meeting demand, and especially for any business looking to reduce its overall inventory costs.

Formula for Calculating Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)

Specifically, the shown in the next section should be applied. Two important categories of inventory costs are ordering costs and carrying costs. Ordering costs are costs that are incurred to obtain additional inventories, whereas carrying costs are the costs incurred to hold inventory on hand. The economic order quantity (EOQ) is the order quantity that minimizes total holding and ordering costs for the year. Even if all the assumptions don’t hold exactly, the EOQ gives us a good indication of whether or not current order quantities are reasonable.

Using an EOC Formula can boost your business by optimizing your inventory and keeping production costs low:

It should be known that Wilson’s formula was not invented by Mr. Wilson but by Ford Whitman Harris who developed the mathematical principle. Then it was an industrial consultant specialized in inventory management, Mr. R. H. Wilson, who used and applied this formula to inventory optimization. Madis is an experienced content writer and translator with a deep interest in manufacturing and inventory management.

EOQ can only be used if customer demand is consistent, e.g. there are no seasonal fluctuations. But there are several additional benefits to using the economic order quantity model and ordering the ideal amount of inventory at the ideal time. Article by Alecia Bland in collaboration with our team of inventory management and business specialists. When she’s not reading a book with her cat for company, you can usually find her cooking, eating or trying to make her garden productive.

To minimize holding and order costs, the furniture company should order 26 units. To find out the annual demand, you multiply the number of products it sells per month by 12. The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is known as a cash flow tool that helps to control cash that has been held down in a company’s inventory balance.

Techniques like the EOQ formula make it easier to figure out where that sweet spot lies. The idea is that you don’t end up with not enough stock on hand when a spike in demand hits – leading to stockouts and disappointed customers. You also avoid the opposite situation, where you overstock during a period of low demand, leading to potential spoilage or – at the very least – needlessly high holding costs. The amount of money that you would need to spend on setup costs is denoted by the character S when calculating economic order quantity. This includes all the costs of packaging, shipping, and handling throughout its journey to you.

Calculating the EOQ for your business helps you find a good balance for your order and inventory costs, which are easy to overlook in day-to-day business. The nonprofit job description toolkit shouldn’t be taken as gospel, but it’s a useful tool for informed, effective inventory control. The EOQ assumes that holding and ordering cost remain constant, which may not always be the case. An increase or decrease in your transport charges, a change in the salary of your employees, or rising rent for your warehouse can all impact your costs and affect the calculations that go into the EOQ. For example, consider a retail clothing shop that carries a line of men’s shirts.

You can use the same EOQ formula to calculate how many leashes, muzzles, treats, and chews you should keep so you avoid understocking and overstocking. Upper offers businesses a wave of features to bring down logistics costs. Not only does it give your delivery fleet the most efficient routes to drive on, but it also gives you features such as route scheduling to keep you ready for the future. In such a scenario it is best to always use the most accurate data available to derive your final EOQ number. Only a business that has a constant amount of regular customers can utilize the EOQ formula the best. Calculating the setup or ordering cost is very easy as it is usually a fixed cost and is not very prone to fluctuation.